Doable, Measurable and Sustainable Engineering – GineersNow

 

Doable, Measurable and Sustainable Engineering

It is now time to scale this initiative and integrate measurability as a key element in business sustainability blueprints.

Source: Doable, Measurable and Sustainable Engineering – GineersNow 
Read more at: https://gineersnow.com/engineering/environment/doable-measurable-and-sustainable-engineering#comment-20440

Globally, responsible businesses are taking the lead in embedding sustainability in their operations. It is now time to scale this initiative and integrate measurability as a key element in business sustainability blueprints. The landmark report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in 2018 was a powerful clarion call for climate action. Underscoring the unprecedented and immediate need for collective effort to limit global warming, the report emphasizes the role of businesses[1] as an important factor.

The quantifiability of the 1.5-degree-Celsius goal and the measurable steps to achieve it as outlined in the report have created a global sustainability mission that combines social, environmental and economic dimensions.  To save the world, we must strive to move the needle across all three targets.

 

For a business, a measurable sustainability target is a powerful starting point. The concept of measurability is embedded in business thinking, in the form of audits, quarterly and annual reports. Metric-based decision-making enables corporations to vigilantly course-correct towards desirable outcomes.  Similarly, measurability must be the lens through which businesses engage, deliberate courses of action, and ultimately achieve sustainability goals.

Pre-Assessment and benchmarking

The starting point of measurability is understanding the current sustainability status quo and benchmarking the intended goals. A pre-assessment entails analysis of the current environmental, social and economic impact and then contextualizing it with the purpose and overall strategy of the business. The most common performance metric is the mitigation of CO2 emission. With quantification of larger, long-term impact on society, a business can proceed to the next level – making informed decisions to create a more sustainable ecosystem. Considering the immensity of the 1.5 C goal (e.g. reducing greenhouse emissions to net-zero by mid-century), challenging but realistic targets need to be set for measuring performance. These can be distilled down to specific key performance indicators for employees, operations, and the enterprise at large.

Track of progress and proof of impact

Once underway, sustainability needs to be tracked vigilantly so that material issues that arise are addressed swiftly. The short and medium-term milestones also need to be mapped out; these can be examined for delays or inefficiencies. At the same time, an understanding of what is working well for one department can be replicated in others.  Measurability drives action in an organisation. After all, what gets measured properly, gets managed properly and eventually gets done properly. Measurable metrics directly impact a business’s current performance and set the tone for the future as well. Consistent measuring of progress provides clarity on the level of performance or the lack of it. Moreover, tracking progress and communicating milestones within and outside the organisation creates a culture of accountability and transparency. Having a metric also offers two benefits. If underperforming, a company can realign its resources by immediately assessing if there is a lag at any point between intention and outcome. On the other hand, targets achieved ahead of schedule must be made even more ambitious. After all, environmental responsibility is not a one-time campaign to be executed and then forgotten; it is a new transformative agenda for businesses across the globe. Charting a new course is also good for the bottom line. Business sustainability always goes hand-in-hand with long-term profitability and provides a clear incentive to strive to be greener and more sustainable. Customers want products that have a low carbon footprint; employees look up to businesses that can deliver social good on a substantial scale. Climate Action is also part of the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Achieving them can unlock an estimated[1] $12 trillion in potential growth and generate or retain millions of jobs.

Leading by Example

Responsible business must also define how operations are powered, raw material is sourced, new products are created, and supply chains are made resilient against climate change.  A measurable sustainability-oriented approach is, therefore, at the core of business growth and resilience. Responsible businesses around the world have already started on this path to sustainability. An example is the Ford Motor Company’s[2] measurable sustainability goals: it plans to use 100 per cent renewable energy for all manufacturing plants by 2035 and achieve zero air emissions from its facilities. With these measurable goals, it is streamlining its portfolio, improving fuel efficiency, and lowering emissions, energy use and water consumption. To increase transparency about the resiliency of its climate change strategy, Ford recently published a Climate Change Scenario Report. Despite the climate and business benefits of such plans, greening the business strategy does not get the attention that it deserves. According to a 2018 PwC report[4], only 27 per cent of 700 global companies include the Sustainable Development Goals into their business strategy. The corporate world is an integral stakeholder in the journey towards a sustainable future. It is incumbent upon all of us to not only scale up our efforts but also embed measurability in every step of the way. The time window to curb global warming is slowly shutting. We do not have an option to be oblivious. The time to act is now or never.

Read more at: https://gineersnow.com/engineering/environment/doable-measurable-and-sustainable-engineering#comment-20440

40 Crazy Ideas To Change Engineering Education – GineersNow

40 Crazy Ideas To Change Engineering Education. Traditional approaches are obsolete and inefficient

Source: 40 Crazy Ideas To Change Engineering Education – GineersNow

We live in the dynamic time of changes and improvements. All areas of human life undergo transformations, and it seems quite natural to bring something new to education. Traditional approaches are obsolete and inefficient, should be revised in order for educational institutions to keep up with time.Academics come up with original ideas on how the learning process may be changed. In this article, experts have outlined the most interesting strategies and tips. Some of them may seem vague. The ways how these ideas may be combined with other methods, their Pros and cons should be studied more in detail. But that’s okay. 

After all, we are dreaming here, and there is nothing wrong if we would get a little crazy.

  1. Teamwork and interdependence should become a basis for all educational processes.
  2. Allow young people to set their own quality criteria, choose the most suitable assignments and information channels.
  3. Do not state nakedly that each student will be proficient. Better explain what you will do to provide such result.
  4. Schools should be proud of their efficient learning models rather than loud names and history. This is the best way to show educational institutions in action instead of focusing on empty mascots.
  5. Students should choose places where they want to learn. For example, lectures may be held in a park or a cafe.
  6. Do not force learners to come to a class. Make attendance optional.
  7. Allow young people to use gadgets in the classroom.
  8. Stop assessing proficiency based on demographic data. Pay more attention to individual indicators.
  9. Ask the teachers in your school to outline the 10 most useful skills they have and the 10 most valuable things they know. Find patterns in answers and compare them with state standards.
  10. Purchase tablets which should be used at all lessons instead of textbooks and notebooks.
  11. Build a school with walls made of glass.
  12. Create a website where parents would check information on their kids’ academic performance.
  13. Do not be afraid to admit your mistakes, accept the fact that some theory is wrong or some assignment is boring. Do not waste learner’s time just because state standards force you to do so.
  14. Open your mind for advanced technologies, strive to create an educational space of the future, attract the best specialists and innovations.
  15. Do not encourage students to enroll in expensive, prestigious universities practicing outdated approaches and not providing the knowledge necessary to succeed in the modern world.
  16. Add gamification elements to an academic routine, allow junior learners to play more, stimulate their creativity, make learning fun and entertaining.
  17. Teach adolescents to conduct self-analysis, control their emotions and behavior, develop useful communication habits, create strong interpersonal relationships, undertake responsibility, and treat information they come across cautiously.
  18. Help senior students to set career goals, develop skills and competencies which may come in handy at a workplace, instill corporate values.
  19. Use artificial intelligence.
  20. Fund schools like promising startups which should produce human capital and benefit society.
  21. Treat the leading professors like rock stars. They should enjoy fame, money, sign profitable contracts, and participate in TV shows.
  22. Students should be accountable for underperformance. Find mild and fair ways to control their work, avoid offensive and humiliating punishments, provide polite and substantiated criticism, reprimand young people one-on-one rather than in front of a class.
  23. Make learners accountable to each other – not educators. For example, a group may work on a project without the teacher’s support and provide a ready result when a task is accomplished.
  24. Education should cease to be a tedious duty and turn into an exciting adventure. Celebrate learning, and then scientists would be as popular as musicians and movie stars.
  25. Do not think that technology gives answers to all questions. Even though innovations are necessary in some situations, it is not worth introducing them mindlessly.
  26. Your grading system should start with 0 – not 100. This scale is much more objective.
  27. Budgets should be transparent. For example, educational institutions may publish financial reports on their websites. This information should be available to all learners, educators, and parents.
  28. Get rid of letter grades and standardized testing. Students should get more information on their mistakes and knowledge gaps.
  29. Stop oversimplifying course materials and allow young people to train their brains.
  30. Allow teachers to change policies and use authorial educational programs, provided that they lead students to uniform standards adopted at the state level.
  31. Ban scripted curricula and compile learning plans based on students’ inquiries.
  32. Measure process rather than results, in-class activity rather than test scores. Encourage learners to be active, curious, ask questions, and influence the way how lessons are held.
  33. Evolve teaching instead of teaching evolution.
  34. Create a brand in education just like Apple did with gadgets, Coca-Cola – with sugar water, and Instagram – with social networks.
  35. Stop blaming educators for all students’ failures.
  36. Exempt schools from state control. Governmental bodies know nothing about what teachers do at a front line.
  37. Assign a mentor for each student.
  38. Focus on developing thinking habits rather than transmitting knowledge.
  39. Teach young people to compile their own learning strategies.
  40. Invite parents, community members, and businesses to take part in the educational process.Read more at: https://gineersnow.com/students/40-crazy-ideas-change-engineering-education

Source: 40 Crazy Ideas To Change Engineering Education – GineersNow

6 Transportation Goals Congress Should Be Thinking About

BY DANIEL C. VOCK | AUGUST 23, 2019 AT 4:00 AM

Too often, the debate over transportation funding in Congress revolves around dollars and cents. But many advocates say we should agree on big goals first, so we know what we’re getting for the money we spend.Some advocates say Congress should direct more transportation funds to improving transit options, such as the light rail system in Minneapolis. (Shutterstock)Congress spends a lot of time trying to figure out how it should allocate money for infrastructure, but its members rarely articulate why they want to spend that money. There seems to be more discussion in Washington about the size of an infrastructure package—whether it should be $500 billion, $1 trillion or even $2 trillion—than what the public would actually see as a result.

The Senate Environment and Public Works Committee, for example, earned plenty of praise last month for drafting a bipartisan bill that calls for spending $287 billion on highways and related infrastructure. That would be a 27 percent increase over current levels, which should please road builders and perhaps frustrated commuters. The bill also maintains the current methods for doling out that federal money, a victory for state highway departments, which would receive 90 percent of the funds. (The bill does not include spending for rail, transit or certain safety programs, and it does not identify a funding source, because, in Congress’ typical piecemeal fashion, those concerns are the responsibilities of other committees.)

But without clear goals, it’s hard to measure how well the legislation would achieve them. The package includes $10 billion to address climate change, a first for a highway bill. But is that enough to curb carbon dioxide emissions that heat the atmosphere? Or to make roads that can better withstand the increased flooding and extreme weather that climate change brings? How do we know if the highway bill is boosting the economy, as its authors promise, or reducing congestion? Is the current funding scheme the best way to achieve those goals?

These are questions that are all too familiar to state and local leaders.

“When it becomes a conversation [on Capitol Hill] about billions of dollars and engineering projects, we lose what this is about: Infrastructure is what improves the quality of our lives,” says Los Angeles Mayor Eric Garcetti. “Bad infrastructure keeps us from our happiness, keeps us from our families, keeps us from jobs and, in the worst-case scenarios, threatens our health in our lives. Who cares how many miles of roads I can pave in L.A., if Venice Beach is underwater?”

As Congress considers such big-picture considerations this year, though, Governing will not be around to cover the debate. After three decades, both the magazine and the website will cease publication next month.

So, as we sign off, Governing asked prominent transportation leaders to offer their perspectives on what transportation goals the country ought to set. We asked them what obstacles stood in their way, and what Congress or other policymakers could do to help achieve those goals.

Fix Existing Roads and Bridges

Beth Osborne, the director of Transportation for America and a former Obama administration official, says Congress should try to cut the maintenance backlog of America’s roads in half. “Despite the rhetoric we’re sure to hear,” she says of the Senate committee’s proposal, “this bill has zero new binding requirements to ensure that states use their core formula programs to actually bring their roads and bridges into good condition.” Instead, she says, it’s a continuation of the status quo, “providing them with more than $32 billion more for existing road building policy.”

Congress, she says, could specify that highway funds must first be used to repair roads until a state has reached a certain milestone such as, say, lowering the proportion of roads that are in poor condition to 10 percent.

Road projects that add new capacity could be managed the same way that new transit projects are, she adds. That would mean that the state (or other project sponsor) would have to show how the new project addresses federal priorities, Osborne says. They would also have to show that they have a plan to operate and maintain the infrastructure throughout its useful life, and that they can maintain the rest of their system while adding the new project to their liabilities.

Some transportation directors think, however, think the fix-it-first mentality is unworkable. “The idea that we should take care of what we have and not build anything new is a great strategy if you are not growing,” says Maryland Transportation Secretary Pete Rahn. “The problem is, so much of our country is growing. The idea that a Texas or a Florida is not going to build anything [new] until their system is properly maintained is, frankly, unrealistic.”

Reduce Congestion

Rahn works for Maryland Gov. Larry Hogan, a Republican who is emphasizing infrastructure development during his yearlong stint as chair of the National Governors Association. In his home state, Hogan is pushing a plan to widen the Beltway and other major interstates in the Washington, D.C., suburbs using toll lanes and public-private partnerships.

Rahn says one of the top priorities for policymakers ought to be reducing traffic, both to improve the daily lives of drivers and to improve the country’s economy. “We can’t allow our systems to continually choke on congestion,” he says.

The American Road and Transportation Builders Association emphasizes the movement of freight. “Of all the transportation infrastructure needs we have as a nation,” the group wrote in a recent report, “improving the safe and efficient movement of goods is the key to increasing U.S. productivity, lowering the costs of things we produce and purchase, improving our environment and giving us the competitive edge in world markets.”

Federal funding, the group says, should prioritize the 68,000-mile network of freight corridors that Congress designated in 2015. Those roads include interstate highways and other key arteries that connect the country’s major ports, inland waterways, rail hubs, airports and pipelines.

Rahn says one way to speed freight delivery and improve highway safety is to add truck-only lanes on interstates where more than a third of the vehicles are trucks. “Not only would the truckers love that, but a lot of just individuals who drive their family places would love the idea that they’re not sandwiched between a couple of semis,” he says.

Address Climate Change

“For me,” says Yonah Freemark, an influential urbanist and journalist, “the most important goal in transportation is reducing—and, if possible, eliminating—the carbon emissions that are produced by our mobility system, as quickly as possible. We only have so much time to address climate change, and transportation is the biggest contributor to greenhouse gas emissions.”

There are many ways to go about that goal. Some are included in the Senate’s latest plan, but many are not. Congress could discourage gas-guzzling automobiles by raising fuel taxes or imposing taxes on carbon dioxide pollution. It could add incentives to build out electric infrastructure and renewable power sources to make using a zero-emission or low-emission electric vehicle less of a hassle. It could add incentives for transit, cycling and pedestrian infrastructure to keep vehicles off the road altogether. It could invest in research for alternative sources for aviation fuel or build out passenger rail services as an alternative to flying short distances.

Freemark argues that even more drastic steps are necessary, although he admits changing Americans’ dependence on cars would be “no easy feat.”

“Congress can take the first step by stopping funding for highway projects,” he says. “We invest billions of dollars each year in new road infrastructure, which increases transportation emissions directly and then produces more auto-dependent neighborhoods, which further increase transportation emissions. We must simply put a stop to this cycle by putting a halt to transportation expenditures that go to expanding or extending road systems.”

In the meantime, states and localities still must wrestle with the current effects of climate change, and that means making infrastructure more resilient.

“Call it a Green New Deal or call it saving the Earth,” says Garcetti, the L.A. mayor. “Any infrastructure ambitions we have are about to be swamped by climate change. We see it in the fires, we see it in the floods, we see it in the rising tides. We know that this is real.”

Garcetti says building disaster-resistant infrastructure and green energy projects could also be a “big boon” for struggling workers that feel left out of the country’s economic prosperity, whether they’re in the Midwest or in Los Angeles.

But the investment needs to be much bigger than the $10 billion in the Senate plan, he says. The $10 billion, Garcetti says, is “the turning of the handle on the door. It’s not even yet opening the door, let alone what we will need to walk through that door. But you can’t get through the door without turning the handle, and we can’t begin to move resources in without the door being opened.”

Improve Transit

Corinne Kisner, the executive director of the National Association of City Transportation Officials, says Congress’ top goal should be increasing the number of people “who have access to reliable, frequent transit that goes where they need to go.”

Congress could help states and cities achieve that goal by adding more transit funding and expanding the types of projects that the money could be spent on, like, for example, letting cities or transit agencies build sidewalks to transit stops, Kisner says. Congress should reward cities and states that increase transit use through good network design, street design and transit planning by tying increases in funding to increases in transit use.

But Jarrett Walker, a transit consultant and author of the book and website Human Transit, cautions against “fixations on specific technologies and infrastructures.” The goal should be even broader, he says: “Freedom without harm.”

“Maximize the number of jobs and opportunities that people can reach, so that they have the greatest possible freedom in their lives, using methods that scale so as not to destroy the world or other people,” he says. “This principle leads to reasonable rural road investments but retooling investments toward transit, bike and pedestrian infrastructure as density rises.”

Walker says federal funding should be reconfigured so that road money is directed to rural and exurban areas, while urban areas get more transit money. The guiding principle would be outcomes, not specific kinds of infrastructure. “We talk about infrastructure, which evokes the heroism of builders, rather than operations or outcomes,” he says. “In my field, transit, we frequently build infrastructure that is inoperable—or that would fail utterly [in giving people freedom of movement]—simply because building becomes the goal in itself.”

Decrease Road Deaths

More than 40,000 people died every year on U.S. roads for each of the last three years, according to the National Safety Council, the first time that has happened since the Great Recession. One of the biggest frustrations for safety advocates is that speeding continues to be a major factor, even as the country has made progress over recent decades in reducing deaths from drunk driving and people not wearing their seatbelts.

Beth Osborne, from Transportation for America, says Congress should make greater efforts to curtail speed-related deaths. Congress could give localities—and not just states—the power to lower speed limits in developed areas. It could rescind federal recommendations to set speed limits based on the “85th percentile” rule, which specifies that the limits should be high enough that 85 percent of drivers travel under the speed even when no speed limit signs are posted.

Federal lawmakers could require states to gather data on crashes and injuries that are “speed related, not speeding related,” she adds. “A speeding related crash is one where the driver was exceeding the speed limit. A speed related fatality is a fatality made more likely by the speed of travel, even if it was in compliance with the posted speed.”

And overall, Osborne says, Congress should set safety targets for states that require them to show improvement over existing injury and fatality levels, or else they would have to dedicate more of their federal money to safety.

Ironically, greater vehicle speeds are often seen as the goal of transportation projects, Osborne says, even though fast-moving vehicles don’t guarantee quick trips, because of things like cross streets and congestion. Fast traffic can also harm businesses, because potential customers don’t see stores as they whiz by at 45 mph.

There are other potential ways to reduce speed that Osborne didn’t mention. Congress, for example, could reduce funding for states that ban speed cameras or add money for those that use them. It could require the federal Department of Transportation to coordinate a national education campaign on speeding, akin to “Click It or Ticket” for seat belt use, something the National Transportation Safety Board has advocated . It could allow State Highway Safety Offices to spend federal grants on promoting safe road designs, not just public education and enforcement measures.

Better Roads on Native American Reservations

Too often, the debate over infrastructure and Native American lands centers on what infrastructure should be built through those lands—whether that’s oil pipelines or border walls—rather than for those lands. As Governing and others have reported, resources to maintain reservation roads or upgrade them from dirt to gravel, much less pavement, are scarce. The jurisdiction over those roads can be confusing and even contentious. But it’s hard to imagine the situation improving without a serious influx of money from the federal government, which often forced tribes onto reservations in the first place.

Source: 6 Transportation Goals Congress Should Be Thinking About

‘100-year’ floods will happen every 1 to 30 years, according to new flood maps

‘100-year’ floods will happen every 1 to 30 years, according to new flood mapsby Princeton UniversityResearchers at Princeton University calculated flood risks for 171 counties across four regions: New England (green), mid-Atlantic (orange), southeast Atlantic (blue), and Gulf of Mexico (red). They found that what used to be considered 100-year floods will occur far more often depending on the location. Credit: Reza Marsooli et alA 100-year flood is supposed to be just that: a flood that occurs once every 100 years, or a flood that has a one-percent chance of happening every year.But Princeton researchers have developed new maps that predict coastal flooding for every county on the Eastern and Gulf Coasts and find 100-year floods could become annual occurrences in New England; and happen every one to 30 years along the southeast Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico shorelines.”The historical 100-year floods may change to one-year floods in Northern coastal towns in the U.S.,” said Ning Lin, associate professor of civil and environmental engineering at Princeton University.In a new paper published in the journal Nature Communications, researchers combined storm surge, sea level rise, and the predicted increased occurrence and strength in tropical storms and hurricanes to create a map of flood hazard possibility along the U.S. East Coast and Gulf of Mexico. Coastlines at northern latitudes, like those in New England, will face higher flood levels primarily because of sea level rise. Those in more southern latitudes, especially along the Gulf of Mexico, will face higher flood levels because of both sea level rise and increasing storms into the late 21st century.

Source: ‘100-year’ floods will happen every 1 to 30 years, according to new flood maps

Lessons Learned from the First Generation of Net-Zero Communities – THE DIRT

The first generation of net-zero communities, which were designed to add no carbon to the atmosphere, are entering their second decade. Beddington Zero Energy Development (BedZED) in London is about 15 years old now; and the first phase of Dockside Green in Victoria, Canada, is now 10 years old. In a session at the 2017 Greenbuild in Boston, Steven Dulmage with Urban Equation and Justin Downey at RNWL outlined lessons learned from these early sustainable communities and how they informed second-generation developments, such as Zibi in Ottawa, Canada, and Hazelwood Green in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.According to Dulmage, BedZED, which has 82 homes, “didn’t hit net-zero carbon projections.” While the project successfully reduced emissions from transportation — as more residents walk, bike, or take mass transit — the biomass plant built onsite didn’t work out. It ran for a few years and then was discontinued. “It wasn’t economic to run, so they converted to gas. The business case for the biomass plant wasn’t well-thought through.”Dockside Green in British Columbia, which has 26 buildings that house 2,500 people, was “built up at the front end during the recession, which was very painful for the developers,” explained Downey. While the developers used a phased approach to development, Downey seemed to say the roll-out of those phases was too aggressive. “They didn’t wait for absorption,” meaning they didn’t build to the pace of tenants buying apartments. Dockside Green / Times ColonistAlso mentioned: One Brighton in the UK, built in 2009, was the first major development built using the One Planet Living framework. While the development reduced carbon emissions by 70 percent in comparison with the average neighborhood development, that’s not 100 percent. Still, homes there sell for a 10 percent premium over comparable real estate because of their inherent sustainability and resale value. There are also other benefits: residents who move there sell their cars as they can walk and bike everywhere. No cars means much less spent on transportation and fewer carbon emissions.

Source: Lessons Learned from the First Generation of Net-Zero Communities – THE DIRT