Project Engineers Win Construction Contracts Putting These Skills to Test – GineersNow

Project Engineers Win Construction Contracts Putting These Skills to Test

Project management in engineering is a growing discipline where engineers apply project management techniques to better manage their role on site

by GN Feature Story

Read more at: https://gineersnow.com/leadership/project-engineers-win-construction-contracts-skills-test
Source: Project Engineers Win Construction Contracts Putting These Skills to Test – GineersNow

Becoming a project engineer goes hand in hand with being a good project manager. Engineers help build structures through accurate technical reading. Project managers facilitate the design-build-operation process by managing people. What makes the two so distinct yet very similar? Their purpose—which is to put their individual strengths toward project completion. Managing the technical and people side of the business isn’t a skill honed overnight; a project engineer jumps through many hoops to assimilate a strong culture of caring into tight bottom lines. Project management in engineering is a growing discipline where engineers apply project management techniques to better manage their role on site. Responsible for product design, engineers prepare detailed sketched and engineering reports after reviewing drawings built by architects to ensure compliance with code and client specifications.  Enormous technical detail and support go into materializing the final design, which creates an equally big room for errors if consistency and accuracy are affected. The bid-to-win ratio of construction contracts has diminished over the past two decades, where in the pre-financial crisis era more projects would be up for auction to a select few contractors in local areas. Today, the sheer growth in construction activity has also generated a parallel growth in the number of contractors, except now those that are digitally inclined bring more business due to the cost and time saved in managing bids vis-à-vis manual processes. The reality can be improved by turning a fresh leaf in the way project engineers approach contracts. For aspiring engineers looking to join large construction firms as project engineers, mapping out your career doesn’t have to be daunting. Procore informs of the many aspects of project engineering to help you make a well-informed decision. In its essence, good project engineering draws from a good education as an essential first step. If you’re at the crossroads of choosing to study further, reading this might ease your decision-making process. Alternatively, those at the crossroads of applying for project engineer jobs often get stumped creating resumes; this post could inspire you to build a compelling application. Still hanging on to discover tricks to win more construction contracts? We might be onto something. Project Management for Engineers How Construction Project Engineers Communicate PEs work with multiple teams for months until the end of a project. Communication about daily project events helps them collaborate even under pressure—something that young PEs easily give in to before weighing their options to get to an agreeable solution. Construction projects are volatile and that brings ambiguity even to the most thoroughly-planned project items. The superintendent and PE are in close quarters which can lead to as much efficiency as anxiety for PEs to prove themselves on the job. When things don’t go according to plan, PEs can take on more than is reasonably manageable without raising queries, since they may view themselves as seeming incompetent if they raised difficult questions. Read more  5 Myths That Will Change the Way You think About Engineering Management This can deter effective teamwork as the focus drifts away from the task on hand to pandering to the perceived interests of the project stakeholders. Hence, it’s always advisable to raise issues when they arise to ensure that everyone involved has enough bandwidth to arrive at a fair solution. Stabilized communication increases your chance to convey what’s deliverable to a client, resulting in greater accuracy in bid proposals which in turn is likely to improve your winning odds. How Project Engineers Build Relationships Project engineers, as already seen, collaborate with a variety of stakeholders. From clients to subcontractor teams, they’re deeply involved throughout the project lifecycle, which requires them to nurture relationships to achieve desired outcomes. Strong internal relationships determine their success at bidding events since a full and fair estimation of projects enables them to promise only what’s achievable—not what they think the client would want in an effort to outdo their competitors. Setting yourself apart from the competitors is a multi-faceted process, one that needs clarifying what type of work you can do and at a price that beats direct rivals. If you’re on strong terms with your customers, you can glean valuable insights from their past engagements with contractors to prepare and price your projects accordingly. Many times, bidding at the lowest price isn’t feasible while coming in at a higher price point isn’t entirely risky since you must be on the same page with the client about the value your resources and expertise will deliver. Avoid speculating on what your client wants. Instead, actively work with them to form a proposal that appears to hit their targets. For instance, you can include a list of past projects showing how you surpassed the schedule and result expectations through pictures of similar projects. Draft a phased schedule of delivery to help your client think about how you intend to complete the project. Aim to include appealing added services to your proposal that prove you can reach your completion date with no pending work and all obligations met

Onboard a Construction Estimating Software Using software is yet to become a universal SOP; however, a construction estimating tool is effective to centralize bid information and define workflows to control costs and schedule. Should your company find value in a digital solution, here’s a comprehensive guide on construction project management software to move to the next level. Construction bidding software is widely integrated into project management software to cover a variety of activities across project phases. It automates costing jobs and comes with a range of integrations and product support that smoothens tasks from creating drawings to billing clients. Being a smart data management tool, it regularly notifies users of price fluctuations in the market, labour costs, material supplies, and offers a plethora of bidding resources that come in handy wherever you are in the construction bidding process. The database adapts to the method you use to cost jobs while updating with the incoming market and industry trends. This minimizes errors and risks and gives contractors, engineers, owners, and clients the confidence to visualize the project to completion. Lean Construction for Higher Bid Wins The most viable approach to greater bid wins is to have the lowest possible costs and the most efficient field project management process. Field teams must adopt lean and productive approaches to executing on project design requirements with zero downtime, lags, quality slip-ups, and errors. With everyone managed according to lean construction parameters, your jobsite will function as was laid out during the planning phase. Here are some tactics to help you imbibe lean construction project management: Present a realistic proposal Onboard digital solutions and show their application Offer specialized services Offer a complete package of trained staff and value-added engineering services Provide proof of being well-financed alongside permits and liability coverage Give a walkthrough of a schedule to show faster project completion Develop a partnership and promise to do whatever it takes to account for what you’ve proposed

Read more at: https://gineersnow.com/leadership/project-engineers-win-construction-contracts-skills-test

Source: Project Engineers Win Construction Contracts Putting These Skills to Test – GineersNow

40 Crazy Ideas To Change Engineering Education – GineersNow

40 Crazy Ideas To Change Engineering Education. Traditional approaches are obsolete and inefficient

Source: 40 Crazy Ideas To Change Engineering Education – GineersNow

We live in the dynamic time of changes and improvements. All areas of human life undergo transformations, and it seems quite natural to bring something new to education. Traditional approaches are obsolete and inefficient, should be revised in order for educational institutions to keep up with time.Academics come up with original ideas on how the learning process may be changed. In this article, experts have outlined the most interesting strategies and tips. Some of them may seem vague. The ways how these ideas may be combined with other methods, their Pros and cons should be studied more in detail. But that’s okay. 

After all, we are dreaming here, and there is nothing wrong if we would get a little crazy.

  1. Teamwork and interdependence should become a basis for all educational processes.
  2. Allow young people to set their own quality criteria, choose the most suitable assignments and information channels.
  3. Do not state nakedly that each student will be proficient. Better explain what you will do to provide such result.
  4. Schools should be proud of their efficient learning models rather than loud names and history. This is the best way to show educational institutions in action instead of focusing on empty mascots.
  5. Students should choose places where they want to learn. For example, lectures may be held in a park or a cafe.
  6. Do not force learners to come to a class. Make attendance optional.
  7. Allow young people to use gadgets in the classroom.
  8. Stop assessing proficiency based on demographic data. Pay more attention to individual indicators.
  9. Ask the teachers in your school to outline the 10 most useful skills they have and the 10 most valuable things they know. Find patterns in answers and compare them with state standards.
  10. Purchase tablets which should be used at all lessons instead of textbooks and notebooks.
  11. Build a school with walls made of glass.
  12. Create a website where parents would check information on their kids’ academic performance.
  13. Do not be afraid to admit your mistakes, accept the fact that some theory is wrong or some assignment is boring. Do not waste learner’s time just because state standards force you to do so.
  14. Open your mind for advanced technologies, strive to create an educational space of the future, attract the best specialists and innovations.
  15. Do not encourage students to enroll in expensive, prestigious universities practicing outdated approaches and not providing the knowledge necessary to succeed in the modern world.
  16. Add gamification elements to an academic routine, allow junior learners to play more, stimulate their creativity, make learning fun and entertaining.
  17. Teach adolescents to conduct self-analysis, control their emotions and behavior, develop useful communication habits, create strong interpersonal relationships, undertake responsibility, and treat information they come across cautiously.
  18. Help senior students to set career goals, develop skills and competencies which may come in handy at a workplace, instill corporate values.
  19. Use artificial intelligence.
  20. Fund schools like promising startups which should produce human capital and benefit society.
  21. Treat the leading professors like rock stars. They should enjoy fame, money, sign profitable contracts, and participate in TV shows.
  22. Students should be accountable for underperformance. Find mild and fair ways to control their work, avoid offensive and humiliating punishments, provide polite and substantiated criticism, reprimand young people one-on-one rather than in front of a class.
  23. Make learners accountable to each other – not educators. For example, a group may work on a project without the teacher’s support and provide a ready result when a task is accomplished.
  24. Education should cease to be a tedious duty and turn into an exciting adventure. Celebrate learning, and then scientists would be as popular as musicians and movie stars.
  25. Do not think that technology gives answers to all questions. Even though innovations are necessary in some situations, it is not worth introducing them mindlessly.
  26. Your grading system should start with 0 – not 100. This scale is much more objective.
  27. Budgets should be transparent. For example, educational institutions may publish financial reports on their websites. This information should be available to all learners, educators, and parents.
  28. Get rid of letter grades and standardized testing. Students should get more information on their mistakes and knowledge gaps.
  29. Stop oversimplifying course materials and allow young people to train their brains.
  30. Allow teachers to change policies and use authorial educational programs, provided that they lead students to uniform standards adopted at the state level.
  31. Ban scripted curricula and compile learning plans based on students’ inquiries.
  32. Measure process rather than results, in-class activity rather than test scores. Encourage learners to be active, curious, ask questions, and influence the way how lessons are held.
  33. Evolve teaching instead of teaching evolution.
  34. Create a brand in education just like Apple did with gadgets, Coca-Cola – with sugar water, and Instagram – with social networks.
  35. Stop blaming educators for all students’ failures.
  36. Exempt schools from state control. Governmental bodies know nothing about what teachers do at a front line.
  37. Assign a mentor for each student.
  38. Focus on developing thinking habits rather than transmitting knowledge.
  39. Teach young people to compile their own learning strategies.
  40. Invite parents, community members, and businesses to take part in the educational process.Read more at: https://gineersnow.com/students/40-crazy-ideas-change-engineering-education

Source: 40 Crazy Ideas To Change Engineering Education – GineersNow

6 Transportation Goals Congress Should Be Thinking About

BY DANIEL C. VOCK | AUGUST 23, 2019 AT 4:00 AM

Too often, the debate over transportation funding in Congress revolves around dollars and cents. But many advocates say we should agree on big goals first, so we know what we’re getting for the money we spend.Some advocates say Congress should direct more transportation funds to improving transit options, such as the light rail system in Minneapolis. (Shutterstock)Congress spends a lot of time trying to figure out how it should allocate money for infrastructure, but its members rarely articulate why they want to spend that money. There seems to be more discussion in Washington about the size of an infrastructure package—whether it should be $500 billion, $1 trillion or even $2 trillion—than what the public would actually see as a result.

The Senate Environment and Public Works Committee, for example, earned plenty of praise last month for drafting a bipartisan bill that calls for spending $287 billion on highways and related infrastructure. That would be a 27 percent increase over current levels, which should please road builders and perhaps frustrated commuters. The bill also maintains the current methods for doling out that federal money, a victory for state highway departments, which would receive 90 percent of the funds. (The bill does not include spending for rail, transit or certain safety programs, and it does not identify a funding source, because, in Congress’ typical piecemeal fashion, those concerns are the responsibilities of other committees.)

But without clear goals, it’s hard to measure how well the legislation would achieve them. The package includes $10 billion to address climate change, a first for a highway bill. But is that enough to curb carbon dioxide emissions that heat the atmosphere? Or to make roads that can better withstand the increased flooding and extreme weather that climate change brings? How do we know if the highway bill is boosting the economy, as its authors promise, or reducing congestion? Is the current funding scheme the best way to achieve those goals?

These are questions that are all too familiar to state and local leaders.

“When it becomes a conversation [on Capitol Hill] about billions of dollars and engineering projects, we lose what this is about: Infrastructure is what improves the quality of our lives,” says Los Angeles Mayor Eric Garcetti. “Bad infrastructure keeps us from our happiness, keeps us from our families, keeps us from jobs and, in the worst-case scenarios, threatens our health in our lives. Who cares how many miles of roads I can pave in L.A., if Venice Beach is underwater?”

As Congress considers such big-picture considerations this year, though, Governing will not be around to cover the debate. After three decades, both the magazine and the website will cease publication next month.

So, as we sign off, Governing asked prominent transportation leaders to offer their perspectives on what transportation goals the country ought to set. We asked them what obstacles stood in their way, and what Congress or other policymakers could do to help achieve those goals.

Fix Existing Roads and Bridges

Beth Osborne, the director of Transportation for America and a former Obama administration official, says Congress should try to cut the maintenance backlog of America’s roads in half. “Despite the rhetoric we’re sure to hear,” she says of the Senate committee’s proposal, “this bill has zero new binding requirements to ensure that states use their core formula programs to actually bring their roads and bridges into good condition.” Instead, she says, it’s a continuation of the status quo, “providing them with more than $32 billion more for existing road building policy.”

Congress, she says, could specify that highway funds must first be used to repair roads until a state has reached a certain milestone such as, say, lowering the proportion of roads that are in poor condition to 10 percent.

Road projects that add new capacity could be managed the same way that new transit projects are, she adds. That would mean that the state (or other project sponsor) would have to show how the new project addresses federal priorities, Osborne says. They would also have to show that they have a plan to operate and maintain the infrastructure throughout its useful life, and that they can maintain the rest of their system while adding the new project to their liabilities.

Some transportation directors think, however, think the fix-it-first mentality is unworkable. “The idea that we should take care of what we have and not build anything new is a great strategy if you are not growing,” says Maryland Transportation Secretary Pete Rahn. “The problem is, so much of our country is growing. The idea that a Texas or a Florida is not going to build anything [new] until their system is properly maintained is, frankly, unrealistic.”

Reduce Congestion

Rahn works for Maryland Gov. Larry Hogan, a Republican who is emphasizing infrastructure development during his yearlong stint as chair of the National Governors Association. In his home state, Hogan is pushing a plan to widen the Beltway and other major interstates in the Washington, D.C., suburbs using toll lanes and public-private partnerships.

Rahn says one of the top priorities for policymakers ought to be reducing traffic, both to improve the daily lives of drivers and to improve the country’s economy. “We can’t allow our systems to continually choke on congestion,” he says.

The American Road and Transportation Builders Association emphasizes the movement of freight. “Of all the transportation infrastructure needs we have as a nation,” the group wrote in a recent report, “improving the safe and efficient movement of goods is the key to increasing U.S. productivity, lowering the costs of things we produce and purchase, improving our environment and giving us the competitive edge in world markets.”

Federal funding, the group says, should prioritize the 68,000-mile network of freight corridors that Congress designated in 2015. Those roads include interstate highways and other key arteries that connect the country’s major ports, inland waterways, rail hubs, airports and pipelines.

Rahn says one way to speed freight delivery and improve highway safety is to add truck-only lanes on interstates where more than a third of the vehicles are trucks. “Not only would the truckers love that, but a lot of just individuals who drive their family places would love the idea that they’re not sandwiched between a couple of semis,” he says.

Address Climate Change

“For me,” says Yonah Freemark, an influential urbanist and journalist, “the most important goal in transportation is reducing—and, if possible, eliminating—the carbon emissions that are produced by our mobility system, as quickly as possible. We only have so much time to address climate change, and transportation is the biggest contributor to greenhouse gas emissions.”

There are many ways to go about that goal. Some are included in the Senate’s latest plan, but many are not. Congress could discourage gas-guzzling automobiles by raising fuel taxes or imposing taxes on carbon dioxide pollution. It could add incentives to build out electric infrastructure and renewable power sources to make using a zero-emission or low-emission electric vehicle less of a hassle. It could add incentives for transit, cycling and pedestrian infrastructure to keep vehicles off the road altogether. It could invest in research for alternative sources for aviation fuel or build out passenger rail services as an alternative to flying short distances.

Freemark argues that even more drastic steps are necessary, although he admits changing Americans’ dependence on cars would be “no easy feat.”

“Congress can take the first step by stopping funding for highway projects,” he says. “We invest billions of dollars each year in new road infrastructure, which increases transportation emissions directly and then produces more auto-dependent neighborhoods, which further increase transportation emissions. We must simply put a stop to this cycle by putting a halt to transportation expenditures that go to expanding or extending road systems.”

In the meantime, states and localities still must wrestle with the current effects of climate change, and that means making infrastructure more resilient.

“Call it a Green New Deal or call it saving the Earth,” says Garcetti, the L.A. mayor. “Any infrastructure ambitions we have are about to be swamped by climate change. We see it in the fires, we see it in the floods, we see it in the rising tides. We know that this is real.”

Garcetti says building disaster-resistant infrastructure and green energy projects could also be a “big boon” for struggling workers that feel left out of the country’s economic prosperity, whether they’re in the Midwest or in Los Angeles.

But the investment needs to be much bigger than the $10 billion in the Senate plan, he says. The $10 billion, Garcetti says, is “the turning of the handle on the door. It’s not even yet opening the door, let alone what we will need to walk through that door. But you can’t get through the door without turning the handle, and we can’t begin to move resources in without the door being opened.”

Improve Transit

Corinne Kisner, the executive director of the National Association of City Transportation Officials, says Congress’ top goal should be increasing the number of people “who have access to reliable, frequent transit that goes where they need to go.”

Congress could help states and cities achieve that goal by adding more transit funding and expanding the types of projects that the money could be spent on, like, for example, letting cities or transit agencies build sidewalks to transit stops, Kisner says. Congress should reward cities and states that increase transit use through good network design, street design and transit planning by tying increases in funding to increases in transit use.

But Jarrett Walker, a transit consultant and author of the book and website Human Transit, cautions against “fixations on specific technologies and infrastructures.” The goal should be even broader, he says: “Freedom without harm.”

“Maximize the number of jobs and opportunities that people can reach, so that they have the greatest possible freedom in their lives, using methods that scale so as not to destroy the world or other people,” he says. “This principle leads to reasonable rural road investments but retooling investments toward transit, bike and pedestrian infrastructure as density rises.”

Walker says federal funding should be reconfigured so that road money is directed to rural and exurban areas, while urban areas get more transit money. The guiding principle would be outcomes, not specific kinds of infrastructure. “We talk about infrastructure, which evokes the heroism of builders, rather than operations or outcomes,” he says. “In my field, transit, we frequently build infrastructure that is inoperable—or that would fail utterly [in giving people freedom of movement]—simply because building becomes the goal in itself.”

Decrease Road Deaths

More than 40,000 people died every year on U.S. roads for each of the last three years, according to the National Safety Council, the first time that has happened since the Great Recession. One of the biggest frustrations for safety advocates is that speeding continues to be a major factor, even as the country has made progress over recent decades in reducing deaths from drunk driving and people not wearing their seatbelts.

Beth Osborne, from Transportation for America, says Congress should make greater efforts to curtail speed-related deaths. Congress could give localities—and not just states—the power to lower speed limits in developed areas. It could rescind federal recommendations to set speed limits based on the “85th percentile” rule, which specifies that the limits should be high enough that 85 percent of drivers travel under the speed even when no speed limit signs are posted.

Federal lawmakers could require states to gather data on crashes and injuries that are “speed related, not speeding related,” she adds. “A speeding related crash is one where the driver was exceeding the speed limit. A speed related fatality is a fatality made more likely by the speed of travel, even if it was in compliance with the posted speed.”

And overall, Osborne says, Congress should set safety targets for states that require them to show improvement over existing injury and fatality levels, or else they would have to dedicate more of their federal money to safety.

Ironically, greater vehicle speeds are often seen as the goal of transportation projects, Osborne says, even though fast-moving vehicles don’t guarantee quick trips, because of things like cross streets and congestion. Fast traffic can also harm businesses, because potential customers don’t see stores as they whiz by at 45 mph.

There are other potential ways to reduce speed that Osborne didn’t mention. Congress, for example, could reduce funding for states that ban speed cameras or add money for those that use them. It could require the federal Department of Transportation to coordinate a national education campaign on speeding, akin to “Click It or Ticket” for seat belt use, something the National Transportation Safety Board has advocated . It could allow State Highway Safety Offices to spend federal grants on promoting safe road designs, not just public education and enforcement measures.

Better Roads on Native American Reservations

Too often, the debate over infrastructure and Native American lands centers on what infrastructure should be built through those lands—whether that’s oil pipelines or border walls—rather than for those lands. As Governing and others have reported, resources to maintain reservation roads or upgrade them from dirt to gravel, much less pavement, are scarce. The jurisdiction over those roads can be confusing and even contentious. But it’s hard to imagine the situation improving without a serious influx of money from the federal government, which often forced tribes onto reservations in the first place.

Source: 6 Transportation Goals Congress Should Be Thinking About

Confessions: Two Years After Earning My Engineering Degree, I Still Feel “Lost” – GineersNow

Confessions: Two Years After Earning My Engineering Degree, I Still Feel “Lost”

Source: Confessions: Two Years After Earning My Engineering Degree, I Still Feel “Lost”   – GineersNow

I am one of those millennials who absolutely feel hopeless despite having graduated two years ago. It feels disappointing that I still feel lost today.

“Adulting is so hard.” – a common phrase we hear from every millennial everywhere. Lifestyle magazines for the young and the hip often bank on this concept and other industries have found ways to profit from “adulting”. Well, if you have millennials who feel clueless about what they’re doing, it’s easy to persuade them to do what you want in an attempt to make their lives feel better.
I would know since I am one of those millennials who absolutely feel hopeless despite having graduated two years ago. It feels disappointing that I still feel lost today. I thought this was just something college students would feel as they go through a phase of existential crisis. But in my case, it got worse. Way worse. Not only do I have to feel this way, I can no longer ask for financial support from my parents. I’m a civil engineering graduate and I’ve been working on a private company for more than a year already. What the internet promises as a fulfilling career with a high salary doesn’t really apply in reality. In my country, we are paid the minimum wage despite the cost of living in our area. I am left to pay my own bills, learn how to budget my money just to make it through the month and develop a certain lifestyle to stay fit and healthy. Everything gets more challenging when the competition gets tougher everyday. With thousands of civil engineers competing for few positions, one has to standout and be the best just to get that raise. So, now, I often ask myself, “What am I supposed to do with my life?”
It doesn’t help that everyone around us lives in a way that they have figured out the secret to success. Some have gone to further develop their knowledge by taking Master’s while others have gone abroad to get better and high-paying jobs. There are people my age who are starting their own business and buying their own cars. I know it’s bad to pity myself and compare, but here I am, still working at a private company with no signs of personal and professional developments. The more I start comparing myself to other people, the more I feel lost. Am I supposed to follow what they’re doing? Am I supposed to apply for a job abroad? Should I get back to school? Will life be easier if I just find someone rich I can marry? Clearly, everything gets confusing nowadays. It also doesn’t help that our parents have different ideas on how we should be living our lives and they look at our actions with a constant look of disapproval.  While this confession may seem to be more of a rant with no resolution, I do know that what I feel is not something I only have. A lot of my peers also share the same sentiment. Some gave in to the pressure and followed the path everyone else is taking while a few special people chose to create a new way for them to take, unafraid of what will come tomorrow as long as they believe in their dreams. I admire these brave souls and hopefully, one day, I will start enjoying the feeling of getting a little lost with my professional (and personal) life and explore what the world can offer with a strong faith in myself and my engineering degree.
So if you’re reading this and you feel lost as well, hang in there.

Read more at: https://gineersnow.com/engineering/confessions-two-years-earning-engineering-degree-still-feel-lost

Source: Confessions: Two Years After Earning My Engineering Degree, I Still Feel “Lost”   – GineersNow

How Resilience Works

When I began my career in journalism—I was a reporter at a national magazine in those days—there was a man I’ll call Claus Schmidt. He was in his mid-fifties, and to my impressionable eyes, he was the quintessential newsman: cynical at times, but unrelentingly curious and full of life, and often hilariously funny in a sandpaper-dry kind of way. He churned out hard-hitting cover stories and features with a speed and elegance I could only dream of. It always astounded me that he was never promoted to managing editor.But people who knew Claus better than I did thought of him not just as a great newsman but as a quintessential survivor, someone who had endured in an environment often hostile to talent. He had lived through at least three major changes in the magazine’s leadership, losing most of his best friends and colleagues on the way. At home, two of his children succumbed to incurable illnesses, and a third was killed in a traffic accident. Despite all this—or maybe because of it—he milled around the newsroom day after day, mentoring the cub reporters, talking about the novels he was writing—always looking forward to what the future held for him.Why do some people suffer real hardships and not falter? Claus Schmidt could have reacted very differently. We’ve all seen that happen: One person cannot seem to get the confidence back after a layoff; another, persistently depressed, takes a few years off from life after her divorce. The question we would all like answered is, Why? What exactly is that quality of resilience that carries people through life?

Source: How Resilience Works